Caixin
Oct 20, 2020 02:48 PM

社论 | 敢为天下先 Editorial: To Meet Xi’s Demand, Shenzhen Should Make New Breakthroughs in Reform (Bilingual)

进入不惑之年的深圳再次被寄予厚望。10月14日,在深圳经济特区建立40周年庆祝大会上,习近平总书记要求,深圳经济特区要策划推动改革,重点领域先行先试。此前,中办国办印发《深圳建设中国特色社会主义先行示范区综合改革试点实施方案(2020-2025年)》,从八个方面涵盖27条改革举措以及40条首批授权事项,赋予深圳在重要领域和关键环节改革上更多自主权。在改革进入深水区、内外部环境复杂严峻之时,先行先试的紧迫性与重要性不言而喻,深圳须在局部突破、带动全局上有新担当与新作为。

In an uncertain year, China has again place high hopes on Shenzhen. Commemorating the 40th anniversary of the establishment of the southern city’s special economic zone (SEZ), President Xi Jinping demanded that Shenzhen plan and promote further reform and take the lead in key areas.

Earlier, the State Council, China’s cabinet, had issued an implementation plan for the comprehensive reform in Shenzhen through 2025. The plan, which covers eight aspects of reform, comprises 27 separate measures and an initial set of 40 authorized items, giving Shenzhen more autonomy to conduct reform in important areas. This is clearly an important first effort, given that we have entered the “deep waters” of reform and both the internal and external environments remain complex and severe. As a pioneer, Shenzhen must have new responsibilities and actions.

先行先试的任务单已经下达,重点为完善要素市场化配置体制机制、创新链产业链融合发展体制机制、市场化法治化国际化营商环境、高水平开放型经济体制、民生服务供给体制、生态环境和城市空间治理体制。不过,深圳究竟能在哪些领域取得突破,仍有待实践检验。方案要求,2020年起步,2022年各方面制度建设取得重要进展,形成一批可复制可推广的重大制度成果。2025年重要领域和关键环节改革取得标志性成果,基本完成试点改革任务。公众对此充满期待,却也替深圳捏一把汗。改革事项繁多,且多为难啃的“硬骨头”。不同于既有的自贸区、自贸港,中央并未“给”制度,而是希望深圳自己“闯”出来。敢为人先的深圳还能不能再杀出一条血路?深圳最好的回应,就是继续勇当“拓荒牛”,取得令人信服的成果。

The task list for the first test has been issued, focusing on the improvement of the market-oriented systems and mechanisms for allocating productive factors; the integration and development of innovation and industry chains; the market-oriented international business environment based on rule of law; the high-level open economic model; the supply system for public services; and environmental and urban space governance systems.

However, Shenzhen has not yet tested in practice which areas are ripe for new breakthroughs. The plan, which will begin this year, requires the city to make important progress by 2022 in all aspects of systems building and create a suite of major systemic achievements that can be replicated and promoted nationwide. By 2025, Shenzhen will have achieved landmark results in the reform of important areas and key links, and will have basically completed the pilot reform tasks.

The public is full of expectations, but they are also anxious about Shenzhen. Many reforms are required, and many are “hard bones.” Unlike the existing free trade zones and free trade ports, the central government has not directly imposed the system, but has freed Shenzhen to explore further reforms. Can this pioneering city repeat the trick? Its best response is to uphold its vanguard spirit and achieve convincing results.

中央给了力度空前的授权,但是,深圳能不能接得住,无疑考验当地决策者智慧和决心,考验上上下下的执行力。公允地说,深圳当前遇到的难题,许多并非局部的,而是中国改革开放进入深水区后面临的全局性课题。倘若容易破解,早已破解了,不劳深圳先行先试。今天深圳角色之吃重,更非当初国人对那个边陲小镇的期许可比。另一方面,深圳倘若不能在先行先试上取得突破,很可能泯然众人。目前,地方竞争日益激烈。中央给了深圳授权,其他不甘人后的地方自然会竭力争取同等待遇。客观上,这就是改革复制推广的机理,但前提是深圳的先行先试不负众望。

The central government has given Shenzhen unprecedented authority, but whether Shenzhen can handle it will undoubtedly test the wisdom and determination of local decision-makers, as well as the administrative powers of the upper and lower levels of government.

To be fair, many of Shenzhen’s current difficulties are not local, but overall problems that China faces as it moves into the deep waters of reform and opening up. If those issues were easy to solve, we would already have done so. Therefore, it makes sense for Shenzhen to try first.

Shenzhen’s importance to Chinese people today is far greater than when it first became an SEZ. But if it fails to make breakthroughs in the upcoming trials, it may fade in significance. Competition between China’s localities is becoming increasingly fierce. Now that Beijing has granted Shenzhen special new power, other places will naturally seek equal treatment. Objectively speaking, this is the mechanism by which China replicates and develops reforms. But it carries the precondition that Shenzhen first meets expectations.

今天的深圳具备更成型的体制框架和更雄厚的物质基础。40年间,GDP增长近万倍,人口超千万,建立起了相对完善的市场经济体系,创新产业集聚,吸引大批人才,全国辐射能力大大增强,深圳已经成为中国经济“南强北弱”的一座标志性城市。这些都是深圳改革开放再出发的优势和底气所在。

Today’s Shenzhen has a more robust institutional framework and stronger material foundations. In the past 40 years, its GDP has grown by a factor of nearly 10,000, and its population now exceeds 10 million. It has established a relatively complete market economic system, and innovative industries have clustered in the city, attracting a large number of talented workers. As its model has spread to other parts of China, Shenzhen has become the confident symbol of a national economy dominated by the South.

深圳的先行先试不必全面开花,“要从人民群众普遍关注、反映强烈、反复出现的问题出发”,在重点领域取得突破。实施方案明确鼓励深圳在土地管理制度上深化探索。长期受限于土地资源稀缺的深圳此番未能扩容,也许会令一些人士感到失落,但是,这未尝不可以理解为,中央期望深圳探索出超大城市在土地约束下高效发展的新路子。市民长期抱怨深圳医疗、教育等公共资源不足。须知此类资源素来是根据户籍人口的数量来配置的。在年轻的深圳,外来人口和户籍人口严重倒挂。深圳亟待突破陈规,实现公共服务全覆盖。人才的集聚,是深圳成功要诀之一,也是决定深圳未来的重要因素,为此,在户籍改革上走在前面的深圳仍须不断完善。此外,在经济金融前沿领域,实施方案也着墨不少,比如,支持开展数字人民币内部封闭试点测试,加快培育数据要素市场。深圳的相关探索将引领全国。

The city’s initial trials do not necessarily need to fully blossom. The plan aims to proceed from deeply embedded issues that resonate with people and make breakthroughs in key areas. It clearly encourages Shenzhen to deepen exploration of its land management system. Although some may feel disappointed that Shenzhen, which has long suffered from scarce land resources, has not been permitted to expand, we might interpret this as the central government challenging the super-large city to explore new ways of developing efficiently under land constraints.

People in Shenzhen have long complained about the city’s insufficient public resources, including medical care and education, but we should note that the government has always allocated such resources according to the number of registered residents. Shenzhen is a young city with far more migrants than permanent residents. As a result, it urgently needs to break the old rules and achieve full coverage of public services.

One of the keys to Shenzhen’s success has been its ability to attract high-skilled workers, a phenomenon that will also play an important role in determining the city’s future. For this reason, Shenzhen must build on its leading role in household registration reform.

In the most cutting-edge areas of economics and finance, the plan spends a lot of time outlining support for the development of internal closed pilot tests of the digital yuan and the cultivation of the data markets. Shenzhen’s exploration of these sectors will go on to lead the country.

市场、法治和创新,是方案多次提及的关键词。此次习近平讲话中肯定深圳“率先进行市场取向的经济体制改革”,令不少企业家备感欣慰。深圳在法治型、服务型政府建设中积累了丰富经验,取得的成绩有目共睹,但是,距离高水平市场经济的要求,深圳在“放管服”改革上仍须迈出新步伐。治理现代化的要害是法治与民主。深圳有责任不断提升运用法治解决治理问题的水平。顺应中国社会的主要矛盾的转换,在国际化大都市深圳,市民对美好生活的向往,必然有着更高要求。如果说过去多扶持几个龙头企业、多建几个产业园,通过拉动经济和财富增长便可提升市民的认同感,那么,未来市民的获得感和幸福感必然来自社会治理水平的全方位提升。人们普遍重视技术和商业创新,其实,社会治理上的创新同样重要,关键是建立政府、市场、社会共建共治共享的社会治理体系,鼓励各类社会组织依法参与社会治理是可行的选择。

The plan returns many times to mentioning the market, the rule of law and innovation. In his speech, Xi affirmed that Shenzhen “takes the lead in carrying out market-oriented reforms of the economic system,” a source of gratification for many entrepreneurs.

Shenzhen has accumulated rich experience in the construction of a service-oriented government built around the rule of law, with obvious achievements. However, away from the demands of its high-level market economy, the city still has to take new steps in the reform of “delegation, regulation and service.” Rule of law and democracy are key to modernizing governance, and Shenzhen has a responsibility to continuously raise the standard of solving governance problems through rule of law.

In line with the transformation of the main contradictions in Chinese society, the citizens of Shenzhen, an international metropolis, are bound to have higher demands for realizing better lives. In the past, we helped improve their sense of identity by stimulating the economy and growing their wealth, for instance by supporting a few more leading companies and building a few more industrial parks.

In the future, we must make them happier via the overall improvement of social governance. People attach great importance to technological and commercial innovation, but social governance innovation is equally important. The key is to establish a system jointly built, governed and shared by the government, the market, and society. To this end, we should consider encouraging nongovernmental organizations to join in with governance in accordance with the law.

深圳的今天是几代人拼搏干出来的;深圳的明天,进步和突破也绝不会唾手可得。“以思想破冰引领改革突围”此次被列为深圳的十大经验之一。28年前,邓小平在“南方谈话”中即指出:“深圳的重要经验就是敢闯。没有一点闯的精神,没有一点’冒’的精神,没有一股气呀、劲呀,就走不出一条好路。”深圳只有永葆这种敢为天下先的精神、劲头和作风,才能创造出让世人刮目相看的新的更优业绩。

Shenzhen today is the result of the hard work of several generations, and its tomorrow will require similarly hard-earned progress and breakthroughs. The city is known for thinking flexibly to enact pioneering reforms that, in turn, lead to further changes.

Twenty-eight years ago, former Chinese President Deng Xiaoping said during his famous “Southern Tour” that Shenzhen’s most important experience was to dare to forge ahead and take risks, without which the city would never have struck the “right path.” Only by fostering its world-leading spirit, energy and style can the city now create new and even greater achievements.

The Chinese version of this article was published in Caixin Weekly on Oct. 19, 2020, and is only available for Caixin Global’s app users. To unlock more bilingual articles, download the Caixin app.

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